Manas Biosphere Reserve located in the foothills of Eastern Himalaya is one of the important protected areas in India and has a large diversity of wildlife, including many endangered, rare and endemic species of flora and fauna. The area lies in between Longitude: 26° 30′ to 27° 00’N by 90° 50′ to 92° 00’E
Manas Biosphere Reserve was the 6th Biosphere Reserve declared by the Government of India, as early as 1989; through an important notification (No. FRW/ 86/ 64, July 7, 1990).
The Biosphere Reserve extends over an area 2837.10 sq.km. from the river Sankosh to river Dhansiri in the east, with core area of 526.22 sq.km. (Manas National Park and Barnadi WLS). The Manas National Park which inscribed in the list of World Heritage Site (UNESCO-IUCN).
Key species of Manas Tiger Reserve are: Tiger, Wild Elephant, Wild Buffalo, Gaur, Golden langur, Pigmy Hog, Hispid hare, Bengal Florican etc.
Manas Biosphere Reserve represents two major biomes – the grassland biome (Savannah and Terai) and the tropical forest biome (Bengal Rain Forests).
The forest habitats of Manas Biosphere Reserve are classified into
- Sub- Himalayan high alluvial semi-evergreen forests
- Eastern Bhabar type forests
- East Himalayan Moist mixed deciduous forests
- Assam Valley semi-evergreen forests
- Low alluvial savannah woodland
- Eastern Wet alluvial grasslands (Champion & Seth, 1968).
- Manas Biosphere Reserve (MBR) represent a total of 844 plants taxa, out of these 586 dicot, 220 monocot, 35 pteridophyte and 3 species of gymnosperm.
- Rare Endangered Threatened taxa: 68 species under 57 genera and 39 families
- Endemic taxa: 16 species belonging to 16 genera and 14 families have been recorded from Manas Biosphere Reserve. Out of these, two taxa viz., Garcinia assamica and Clerodendrum hexangularis are endemic only to Manas Biosphere Reserv
- Medicinal plant: 57 species, 45 genera and 36 families have been recorded